Adults should stay awake no longer than 17 hours to meet the CDC's sleep recommendation. There are two main avenues of treatment for sleep deprivation: Behavioral and cognitive measures and medications.
The Wisconsin Sleep Cohort study, a prospective study, tracked adults with sleep-disordered breathing for at least 4 years to determine new onset hypertension and other outcomes.
But in most cases, it's due to bad sleeping habits.
Insomnia patients often attribute their difficulty sleeping to an overactive brain. Another hypothesis is that chronic insomnia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which in turn contributes to depression Perlis et al.
Modafinil is the only FDA-approved drug for shift work sleep disorder, although it is not approved for sleep loss. Adults with sleep times of 9 hours or more also showed these effects, a finding consistent with the Nurses Health Study.
Most potential mechanisms for sleep changes in psychiatric disorders deal specifically with insomnia and depression.